Potential Energy Management Measures For Municipalities

1. Arenas

  • More efficient main lighting system (e.g. replacing HID lighting systems with energy-efficient fluorescent lighting)
  • Low emissivity ceiling
  • Increase brine temperature resulting from low e ceiling water-cooled refrigeration system connected to heat pumps and heat exchangers to recover rejected heat
  • Integration of the refrigeration system into the heating and ventilation system
  • Brine pump control (brine pump sequenced with the compressors)
  • Turn off the brine pump at night and during no-load periods
  • Conversion of the brine circuit from 2 to 4 passes beneath the concrete slab and the associated decrease in pump power
  • The use of two- or variable-speed brine pumps
  • Desiccant dehumidification
  • Infrared heaters to heat only spectators and not the ice area
  • Limit HVAC air movement over the ice
  • Demand control ventilation for building (CO₂ control)
  • Recover waste heat from compressors and exhaust fans
  • Limit number of compressors operating at one time to save demand charge

2. Pools

  • Covering the pool with a pool cover when it is not in use is the single most effective way to reduce pool heating costs
  • Surface chemical covering for reducing heat loss
  • Solar pool-heating systems
  • High-efficiency conventional pool heating systems with steady state efficiencies as high as 97%. Heat pump pool heaters with coefficients of performance (COP) in the ranges of 6.0 to 8.0 when operated in warm weather. A COP of 6.0 is 600% more efficient than an electric resistance heater
  • Energy-efficient pumps and motors
  • High-efficiency compact fluorescent lights
  • Reduce water-heating costs in the shower area by lowering shower temperatures to 35 °C (95°F). This will not only lower energy costs, but will shorten the amount of time people spend in the shower
  • Low flow shower heads
  • Installing aerators for lavatory faucets
  • Insulate the shower water heaters
  • Heat recovery from pool and showers wastewater using a Gravity-Film Heat Exchanger (GFX)

3. Water Treatment Plans

  • Reduce system demand by encouraging the consumer to use water more efficiently. Some areas to emphasize are:
    • Water efficient household appliances
    • Efficient use of lawn/garden watering
    • Leak detection and repair
    • Low flow toilets
    • Low flow showerheads
    • Industrial water reuse
  • Installing metering systems can save 10 percent of energy costs simply through behavioral changes pay (according to what you use)
  • Evaluate pump performance and baseload the most efficient pumps
  • Consider solids screening at wastewater treatment plants for recycling as compost and reducing capacity requirements for the system
  • Leak and loss reductions.
  • Pump impeller trimming to match flow requirements
  • Equipment upgrades for old inefficient equipment
  • Use low-friction pipe
  • Use high efficiency motors for pumps
  • Use adjustable speed drive for motors with variable loads
  • Use capacitors for improving the power factor

4. Street Lights

  • Evaluate lighting density/km2
  • Retrofit streetlights with lower wattage full cut-off flat lens fixtures
  • Use photocells
  • LED park and street lighting
  • Electronic ballast conversion for HPS standard lighting -- save 20%
  • Remote lamp control (handheld unit or radio frequency) to adjust lighting level according to need
  • Photovoltaic collector lighting system for bus stop lighting

5. Traffic Signals

  • Upgrade existing incandescent traffic signals to energy efficient light emitting diode (LED) traffic signals

6. Holiday Season Lighting

  • The energy efficient LED strings are superior to standard incandescent light strings in that they:
    • use up to 95% less energy
    • last up to 7 times longer
    • are more durable, with no filaments or glass bulbs to break
    • produce very little heat, reducing the risk of fire
  • Timers and photocells can save energy and money by automatically turning lights on at dusk and turning them off at a scheduled time.

7. Libraries / Office Buildings/ Fire Halls

  • Lighting
    • Retrofit T12 fluorescent lamps and standard ballasts with T8 lamps and electronic ballasts
    • Use motion sensors in areas with irregular occupancy patterns
    • Use timeclocks/photocells on exterior lights
    • Convert incandescent/CFL exit signs to LED
  • Fans and Pumps
    • Reduce fan/pump speed with variable speed drives
    • Pump impeller reduction to match flow requirements
    • DDC control to replace manual controls and time clocks
  • Electric Motors
    • Downsize oversized motors for better efficiency
    • Retrofit standard motors with premium-efficiency motors
  • Boilers
    • Install heat recovery stack economizers
    • Reset boiler supply water temperature with outdoor air temperature
    • Add motorized vent dampers to atmospheric boilers to cutstandby losses
    • Optimize the fuel to air ratio for power burners
  • Chillers
    • Increase cooling setpoints
    • Turn off condenser pumps when the corresponding chiller turns off
    • Minimize the operation of chilled water pumps and isolate idle evaporators
  • Controls
    • Use demand controlled ventilation using CO² and occupancy sensors to control outdoor air quantities
    • Use DDC systems for AHUs, MAUs, EFs, heat pumps, VAV boxes, electrical heaters and lighting
    • Adjust mechanical systems operating schedules to reflect occupancy
    • Wider dead band between heating and cooling set-points
  • Domestic Hot Water Tanks
    • Install point-of-use heaters to eliminate piping heat losses
    • Reduce water temperature to only meet the maximum need
    • Separate DHW and building heating systems
  • Compressed Air Systems
    • Reduce pressure to maximum required
    • Reduce inlet air temperature
    • Sequence control of air compressors
    • Repair leaks